Topic Summary

Epistemic thinking refers to a cognitive and metacognitive process by which we reason about ‘knowledge’. Here, we aim to discuss the nature of ‘knowledge’ insofar as it connects with our ethics (in other words, how our precepts of the character of “knowledge” affect how we interact with others & ideas in real life).

  • What constitutes knowledge?
    • In what ways can be conceptualize ‘information’?
    • How is it generated and transferred?
  • Do specific social agents (i.e individuals) possess more epistemic authority?
    • Why? Why not?
  • What attributes of our epistemic reasoning (in other words, what epistemic attitudes or higher order epistemic constructs) are conducive to identifying theories or ideas of relevance?
  • What are the limitations of ‘knowledge’ and thinking about how we think about what constitutes ‘knowledge’?
  • What ethical implications do epistemics and meta-epistemics have in connection to professional practices like healthcare, STEM, and education?
  • What ethical issues are implicit in social systems, where some individuals agents have more epistemic & decision-making power than those whom they serve?

 

Let’s look at a specific example: take the conceptual domain that we’ll label as “mental health & mental disorder”

DSM categories not only lack theoretical-conceptual reliability and predictive validity, reflecting flaws in the structure of the ontological model itself, but they also have enormous implications for how power is distributed in social systems.

So, what kind of ethical implications does this have for patient-provider interactions? At a time when diagnoses still lack sufficient prognostic utility, what are our ethics around evaluation, treatment, and communication with clients? Do we have some questions that we need to address with respect to how we conceptualize and implement diagnostic practices?

Do you think the evaluation and treatment process (at large) is more likely to be driven by the institutional desire to manage risk rather than to relationally engage ? Is it ethical to make such diagnostic determinations in light of such conceptual & computational gaps?

If a diagnosis must be made for practical reasons (insurance, for instance), then how should a ‘diagnosis’ be communicated?  To be clear, we are not saying that professionals who engage in the act of diagnosis are behaving unethically: not only is the intent of diagnosis to shed light on the pathophysiology of disorder in order to identify and implement ways to lessen the harmful dysfunction (though, we could certainly debate the extent to which this process does or does not function in this way), many clients seek closure and comfort in diagnoses. The needs of providers and client stakeholders are critically important; however, what if an excessive psychological need for closure, actually undermines the capacity for critical thinking & balanced analysis? What if a pervasive psychological intolerance of uncertainty undermines individual and collective capacities for sense-making? Here, the specific pain point that we seek to address is the problem that presents when diagnostic claims are made in the absence of enough information to support them.

Barring clear structural damage (you know, shattered bones, dead tissue, etc), most health phenomena are rarely so simple and unidimensional . Appraising ‘diagnosis’ as ‘predictive prognosis’ might be a comforting crutch, but should it be normative to prioritize psychological safety over epistemic validity? Perhaps the point at which scientific and medical information is communicated, is where we need to consider an ethic of ambiguity upon which to deploy the use of appropriate language that would allow us to receive, integrate, and express messages about the strengths & limitations of our knowledge. Maybe it is in the light such an honest ‘unknowing’, that we could learn to find meaning, value, and maybe even some creative solutions, to our continuous problems.

Bibliography

{6447874:C76QEZ7U};{6447874:CGUC3CCX} chicago-author-date default asc no 1193
Han, Paul K. J. 2013. “Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Problems in Communicating Uncertainty in Clinical Evidence.” Medical Care Research and Review : MCRR 70 (1 0): 14S-36S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558712459361.

Relevant References

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  2021 (2)
Development of Creative Thinking Skills in the Teaching-Learning Process. Larraz-Rábanos, N. IntechOpen, May 2021. Publication Title: Teacher Education - New Perspectives
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@book{larraz-rabanos_development_2021,
	title = {Development of {Creative} {Thinking} {Skills} in the {Teaching}-{Learning} {Process}},
	isbn = {978-1-83969-289-5},
	url = {https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/76737},
	abstract = {Creativity is one of the most appreciated learning skills current the XXI century. The development of creativity has been considered essential in order to achieve an effective and a high-level learning. As different approaches to its study, creativity has been defined as a result, as a process, as a construct derived from the influence of the context and of the experience and as a personality feature of human nature. The aim of this contribution is to explain the study of creativity from the mentioned approaches to achieve a comprehension of such construct. In addition, the focus has been centred on highlight the development of creativity from an educational approach, starting from the description, implication of the use and application of creative strategies in the teaching and learning processes. Finally, a brief description is made of the most important or relevant strategies found in the literature, with emphasis on the incorporation of these strategies in the problem-solving process.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2021-11-27},
	publisher = {IntechOpen},
	author = {Larraz-Rábanos, Natalia},
	month = may,
	year = {2021},
	doi = {10.5772/intechopen.97780},
	note = {Publication Title: Teacher Education - New Perspectives},
}

Creativity is one of the most appreciated learning skills current the XXI century. The development of creativity has been considered essential in order to achieve an effective and a high-level learning. As different approaches to its study, creativity has been defined as a result, as a process, as a construct derived from the influence of the context and of the experience and as a personality feature of human nature. The aim of this contribution is to explain the study of creativity from the mentioned approaches to achieve a comprehension of such construct. In addition, the focus has been centred on highlight the development of creativity from an educational approach, starting from the description, implication of the use and application of creative strategies in the teaching and learning processes. Finally, a brief description is made of the most important or relevant strategies found in the literature, with emphasis on the incorporation of these strategies in the problem-solving process.
Antifragility. March 2021. Page Version ID: 1013667270
Paper   link   bibtex   abstract  
@misc{noauthor_antifragility_2021,
	title = {Antifragility},
	copyright = {Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License},
	url = {https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antifragility&oldid=1013667270},
	abstract = {Antifragility is a property of systems in which they increase in capability to thrive as a result of stressors, shocks, volatility, noise, mistakes, faults, attacks, or failures. The concept was developed by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his  book, Antifragile, and in technical papers. As Taleb explains in his book, antifragility is fundamentally different from the concepts of resiliency (i.e. the ability to recover from failure) and robustness (that is, the ability to resist failure). The concept has been applied in risk analysis, physics, molecular biology, transportation planning, engineering, Aerospace (NASA), and computer science.Taleb defines it as follows in a letter to Nature responding to an earlier review of his book in that journal:

Simply, antifragility is defined as a convex response to a stressor or source of harm (for some range of variation), leading to a positive sensitivity to increase in volatility (or variability, stress, dispersion of outcomes, or uncertainty, what is grouped under the designation "disorder cluster"). Likewise fragility is defined as a concave sensitivity to stressors, leading to a negative sensitivity to increase in volatility. The relation between fragility, convexity, and sensitivity to disorder is mathematical, obtained by theorem, not derived from empirical data mining or some historical narrative. It is a priori.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2021-04-09},
	journal = {Wikipedia},
	month = mar,
	year = {2021},
	note = {Page Version ID: 1013667270},
}

Antifragility is a property of systems in which they increase in capability to thrive as a result of stressors, shocks, volatility, noise, mistakes, faults, attacks, or failures. The concept was developed by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book, Antifragile, and in technical papers. As Taleb explains in his book, antifragility is fundamentally different from the concepts of resiliency (i.e. the ability to recover from failure) and robustness (that is, the ability to resist failure). The concept has been applied in risk analysis, physics, molecular biology, transportation planning, engineering, Aerospace (NASA), and computer science.Taleb defines it as follows in a letter to Nature responding to an earlier review of his book in that journal: Simply, antifragility is defined as a convex response to a stressor or source of harm (for some range of variation), leading to a positive sensitivity to increase in volatility (or variability, stress, dispersion of outcomes, or uncertainty, what is grouped under the designation "disorder cluster"). Likewise fragility is defined as a concave sensitivity to stressors, leading to a negative sensitivity to increase in volatility. The relation between fragility, convexity, and sensitivity to disorder is mathematical, obtained by theorem, not derived from empirical data mining or some historical narrative. It is a priori.
  2020 (3)
How to Regulate the Right to Self-Medicate. Roberts, J. T. F. HEC Forum. June 2020. ZSCC: 0000000
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{roberts_how_2020,
	title = {How to {Regulate} the {Right} to {Self}-{Medicate}},
	issn = {0956-2737, 1572-8498},
	url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10730-020-09415-7},
	doi = {10.1007/s10730-020-09415-7},
	abstract = {In Pharmaceutical Freedom Professor Flanigan argues we ought to grant people self-medication rights for the same reasons we respect people’s right to give (or refuse to give) informed consent to treatment. Despite being the most comprehensive argument in favour of self-medication written to date, Flanigan’s Pharmaceutical Freedom leaves a number of questions unanswered, making it unclear how the safe-guards Flanigan incorporates to protect people from harming themselves would work in practice. In this paper, I extend Professor Flanigan’s account by discussing a hypothetical case to illustrate how these safe-guards could work together to protect people from harms caused by their own ignorance or incompetence.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2021-04-10},
	journal = {HEC Forum},
	author = {Roberts, Joseph T. F.},
	month = jun,
	year = {2020},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000000},
}

In Pharmaceutical Freedom Professor Flanigan argues we ought to grant people self-medication rights for the same reasons we respect people’s right to give (or refuse to give) informed consent to treatment. Despite being the most comprehensive argument in favour of self-medication written to date, Flanigan’s Pharmaceutical Freedom leaves a number of questions unanswered, making it unclear how the safe-guards Flanigan incorporates to protect people from harming themselves would work in practice. In this paper, I extend Professor Flanigan’s account by discussing a hypothetical case to illustrate how these safe-guards could work together to protect people from harms caused by their own ignorance or incompetence.
Free to Choose: A Moral Defense of the Right-to-Try Movement. Brodrick, M. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine, 45(1): 61–85. January 2020. ZSCC: 0000001 Publisher: Oxford Academic
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{brodrick_free_2020,
	title = {Free to {Choose}: {A} {Moral} {Defense} of the {Right}-to-{Try} {Movement}},
	volume = {45},
	issn = {0360-5310},
	shorttitle = {Free to {Choose}},
	url = {https://academic.oup.com/jmp/article/45/1/61/5700356},
	doi = {10.1093/jmp/jhz028},
	abstract = {Abstract.  The claim that individuals legitimately differ with respect to their values seems to be uncontroversial among bioethicists, yet many bioethicists nev},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-08-12},
	journal = {The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine},
	author = {Brodrick, Michael},
	month = jan,
	year = {2020},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000001 
Publisher: Oxford Academic},
	pages = {61--85},
}

Abstract. The claim that individuals legitimately differ with respect to their values seems to be uncontroversial among bioethicists, yet many bioethicists nev
Conceptual Competence in Psychiatry: Recommendations for Education and Training. Aftab, A.; and Waterman, G. S. Academic Psychiatry. January 2020.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{aftab_conceptual_2020,
	title = {Conceptual {Competence} in {Psychiatry}: {Recommendations} for {Education} and {Training}},
	issn = {1545-7230},
	shorttitle = {Conceptual {Competence} in {Psychiatry}},
	url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-020-01183-3},
	doi = {10.1007/s40596-020-01183-3},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2020-03-23},
	journal = {Academic Psychiatry},
	author = {Aftab, Awais and Waterman, G. Scott},
	month = jan,
	year = {2020},
}

  2019 (3)
Tolerating uncertainty about conceptual models of uncertainty in health care. Han, P. K. J.; and Djulbegovic, B. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 25(2): 183–185. 2019. ZSCC: 0000004 _eprint: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jep.13110
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{han_tolerating_2019,
	title = {Tolerating uncertainty about conceptual models of uncertainty in health care},
	volume = {25},
	issn = {1365-2753},
	url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jep.13110},
	doi = {10.1111/jep.13110},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2020-10-24},
	journal = {Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice},
	author = {Han, Paul K. J. and Djulbegovic, Benjamin},
	year = {2019},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000004 
\_eprint: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jep.13110},
	pages = {183--185},
}

Visual Entropy and the Visualization of Uncertainty. Holliman, N. S.; Coltekin, A.; Fernstad, S. J.; Simpson, M. D.; Wilson, K. J.; and Woods, A. J. arXiv:1907.12879 [cs, math]. July 2019. ZSCC: 0000002 arXiv: 1907.12879
Paper   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{holliman_visual_2019,
	title = {Visual {Entropy} and the {Visualization} of {Uncertainty}},
	url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1907.12879},
	abstract = {Background: It is possible to find many different visual representations of data values in visualizations, it is less common to see visual representations that include uncertainty, especially in visualizations intended for non-technical audiences. Objective: our aim is to rigorously define and evaluate the novel use of visual entropy as a measure of shape that allows us to construct an ordered scale of glyphs for use in representing both uncertainty and value in 2D and 3D environments. Method: We use sample entropy as a numerical measure of visual entropy to construct a set of glyphs using R and Blender which vary in their complexity. Results: A Bradley-Terry analysis of a pairwise comparison of the glyphs shows participants (n=19) ordered the glyphs as predicted by the visual entropy score (linear regression R2 {\textgreater}0.97, p{\textless}0.001). We also evaluate whether the glyphs can effectively represent uncertainty using a signal detection method, participants (n=15) were able to search for glyphs representing uncertainty with high sensitivity and low error rates. Conclusion: visual entropy is a novel cue for representing ordered data and provides a channel that allows the uncertainty of a measure to be presented alongside its mean value.},
	urldate = {2020-10-14},
	journal = {arXiv:1907.12879 [cs, math]},
	author = {Holliman, Nicolas S. and Coltekin, Arzu and Fernstad, Sara J. and Simpson, Michael D. and Wilson, Kevin J. and Woods, Andrew J.},
	month = jul,
	year = {2019},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000002 
arXiv: 1907.12879},
	keywords = {Computer Science - Graphics, Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction, Computer Science - Information Theory},
}

Background: It is possible to find many different visual representations of data values in visualizations, it is less common to see visual representations that include uncertainty, especially in visualizations intended for non-technical audiences. Objective: our aim is to rigorously define and evaluate the novel use of visual entropy as a measure of shape that allows us to construct an ordered scale of glyphs for use in representing both uncertainty and value in 2D and 3D environments. Method: We use sample entropy as a numerical measure of visual entropy to construct a set of glyphs using R and Blender which vary in their complexity. Results: A Bradley-Terry analysis of a pairwise comparison of the glyphs shows participants (n=19) ordered the glyphs as predicted by the visual entropy score (linear regression R2 \textgreater0.97, p\textless0.001). We also evaluate whether the glyphs can effectively represent uncertainty using a signal detection method, participants (n=15) were able to search for glyphs representing uncertainty with high sensitivity and low error rates. Conclusion: visual entropy is a novel cue for representing ordered data and provides a channel that allows the uncertainty of a measure to be presented alongside its mean value.
Beyond Medical Paternalism: Undoing the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Simone de Beauvoir's A Very Easy Death. Elsner, A. M. Literature and Medicine, 37(2): 420–441. December 2019. ZSCC: 0000000 Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{elsner_beyond_2019,
	title = {Beyond {Medical} {Paternalism}: {Undoing} the {Doctor}-{Patient} {Relationship} in {Simone} de {Beauvoir}'s {A} {Very} {Easy} {Death}},
	volume = {37},
	issn = {1080-6571},
	shorttitle = {Beyond {Medical} {Paternalism}},
	url = {https://muse.jhu.edu/article/745344},
	doi = {10.1353/lm.2019.0019},
	abstract = {In A Very Easy Death Simone de Beauvoir documents the illness, hospitalization, and death of her mother Françoise. Critics in the fields of bioethics and the medical humanities have concentrated on the text’s paternalistic doctor-patient encounter, which culminates in the withholding of the cancer diagnosis from Beauvoir’s mother and entails an unnecessary medical intervention to which the patient never consents. Reviewing the text’s reception, this article argues that a focus on the ways in which it depicts breaches of several tenets of medical ethics have decontextualized A Very Easy Death and occluded the key role Beauvoir plays in the doctor-patient relationship. By situating the text within Beauvoir’s œuvre and debates in French philosophy of medicine at the time of publication, this article proposes that Beauvoir’s part in the withholding of the cancer diagnosis emerges less as a submission to medical paternalism than as a form of maternal caregiving.},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2020-03-25},
	journal = {Literature and Medicine},
	author = {Elsner, Anna Magdalena},
	month = dec,
	year = {2019},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000000 
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press},
	pages = {420--441},
}

In A Very Easy Death Simone de Beauvoir documents the illness, hospitalization, and death of her mother Françoise. Critics in the fields of bioethics and the medical humanities have concentrated on the text’s paternalistic doctor-patient encounter, which culminates in the withholding of the cancer diagnosis from Beauvoir’s mother and entails an unnecessary medical intervention to which the patient never consents. Reviewing the text’s reception, this article argues that a focus on the ways in which it depicts breaches of several tenets of medical ethics have decontextualized A Very Easy Death and occluded the key role Beauvoir plays in the doctor-patient relationship. By situating the text within Beauvoir’s œuvre and debates in French philosophy of medicine at the time of publication, this article proposes that Beauvoir’s part in the withholding of the cancer diagnosis emerges less as a submission to medical paternalism than as a form of maternal caregiving.
  2018 (1)
Qualitative interviewing and epistemics. Roulston, K. Qualitative Research, 18(3): 322–341. June 2018.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{roulston_qualitative_2018,
	title = {Qualitative interviewing and epistemics},
	volume = {18},
	issn = {1468-7941, 1741-3109},
	url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1468794117721738},
	doi = {10.1177/1468794117721738},
	abstract = {Work on epistemics in conversation analysis (CA) has demonstrated how speakers attend closely to the knowledge claims they and others make and how this shapes interaction. This paper uses work on epistemics in CA to explore how interviewers and interviewees orient to knowledge claims involving the asking and answering of questions. Since research participants are recruited to represent a category identified by the researcher, interviewees are assumed to have greater knowledge relative to the research topic as compared to interviewers, who typically work to demonstrate that they are eager learners about others’ experiences, perceptions and beliefs and so forth. This paper examines sequences from research interviews to focus on the fine-grained work involved in asking questions and making knowledge claims within interviews. Epistemics provides a powerful tool to examine how speakers’ orientations to others’ knowledge claims is central to the interactional work of conducting interviews.},
	language = {en},
	number = {3},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {Qualitative Research},
	author = {Roulston, Kathryn},
	month = jun,
	year = {2018},
	pages = {322--341},
}

Work on epistemics in conversation analysis (CA) has demonstrated how speakers attend closely to the knowledge claims they and others make and how this shapes interaction. This paper uses work on epistemics in CA to explore how interviewers and interviewees orient to knowledge claims involving the asking and answering of questions. Since research participants are recruited to represent a category identified by the researcher, interviewees are assumed to have greater knowledge relative to the research topic as compared to interviewers, who typically work to demonstrate that they are eager learners about others’ experiences, perceptions and beliefs and so forth. This paper examines sequences from research interviews to focus on the fine-grained work involved in asking questions and making knowledge claims within interviews. Epistemics provides a powerful tool to examine how speakers’ orientations to others’ knowledge claims is central to the interactional work of conducting interviews.
  2017 (2)
Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales. Pekrun, R.; Vogl, E.; Muis, K. R.; and Sinatra, G. M. Cognition and Emotion, 31(6): 1268–1276. August 2017. ZSCC: 0000077
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{pekrun_measuring_2017,
	title = {Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the {Epistemically}-{Related} {Emotion} {Scales}},
	volume = {31},
	issn = {0269-9931, 1464-0600},
	shorttitle = {Measuring emotions during epistemic activities},
	url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02699931.2016.1204989},
	doi = {10.1080/02699931.2016.1204989},
	abstract = {Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the EpistemicallyRelated Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.},
	language = {en},
	number = {6},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Cognition and Emotion},
	author = {Pekrun, Reinhard and Vogl, Elisabeth and Muis, Krista R. and Sinatra, Gale M.},
	month = aug,
	year = {2017},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000077},
	pages = {1268--1276},
}

Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the EpistemicallyRelated Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.
Three-factor structure for Epistemic Belief Inventory: A cross-validation study. Leal-Soto, F.; and Ferrer-Urbina, R. PLOS ONE, 12(3): e0173295. March 2017.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{leal-soto_three-factor_2017,
	title = {Three-factor structure for {Epistemic} {Belief} {Inventory}: {A} cross-validation study},
	volume = {12},
	issn = {1932-6203},
	shorttitle = {Three-factor structure for {Epistemic} {Belief} {Inventory}},
	url = {https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173295},
	doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0173295},
	abstract = {Research on epistemic beliefs has been hampered by lack of validated models and measurement instruments. The most widely used instrument is the Epistemological Questionnaire, which has been criticized for validity, and it has been proposed a new instrument based in the Epistemological Questionnaire: the Epistemic Belief Inventory. The Spanishlanguage version of Epistemic Belief Inventory was applied to 1,785 Chilean high school students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in independent subsamples were performed. A three factor structure emerged and was confirmed. Reliability was comparable to other studies, and the factor structure was invariant among randomized subsamples. The structure that was found does not replicate the one proposed originally, but results are interpreted in light of embedded systemic model of epistemological beliefs.},
	language = {en},
	number = {3},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {PLOS ONE},
	author = {Leal-Soto, Francisco and Ferrer-Urbina, Rodrigo},
	editor = {Lozano, Sergi},
	month = mar,
	year = {2017},
	pages = {e0173295},
}

Research on epistemic beliefs has been hampered by lack of validated models and measurement instruments. The most widely used instrument is the Epistemological Questionnaire, which has been criticized for validity, and it has been proposed a new instrument based in the Epistemological Questionnaire: the Epistemic Belief Inventory. The Spanishlanguage version of Epistemic Belief Inventory was applied to 1,785 Chilean high school students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in independent subsamples were performed. A three factor structure emerged and was confirmed. Reliability was comparable to other studies, and the factor structure was invariant among randomized subsamples. The structure that was found does not replicate the one proposed originally, but results are interpreted in light of embedded systemic model of epistemological beliefs.
  2016 (6)
Is intellectual character growth a realistic educational aim?. Baehr, J. Journal of Moral Education, 45(2): 117–131. April 2016.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{baehr_is_2016,
	title = {Is intellectual character growth a realistic educational aim?},
	volume = {45},
	issn = {0305-7240, 1465-3877},
	url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03057240.2016.1174676},
	doi = {10.1080/03057240.2016.1174676},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2021-11-27},
	journal = {Journal of Moral Education},
	author = {Baehr, Jason},
	month = apr,
	year = {2016},
	pages = {117--131},
}

Toward Epistemic Justice: A Critically Reflexive Examination of ‘Sanism’ and Implications for Knowledge Generation. LeBlanc, S.; and Kinsella, E. A. Studies in Social Justice, 10(1): 59–78. August 2016. ZSCC: 0000044
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{leblanc_toward_2016,
	title = {Toward {Epistemic} {Justice}: {A} {Critically} {Reflexive} {Examination} of ‘{Sanism}’ and {Implications} for {Knowledge} {Generation}},
	volume = {10},
	issn = {1911-4788},
	shorttitle = {Toward {Epistemic} {Justice}},
	url = {https://journals.library.brocku.ca/index.php/SSJ/article/view/1324},
	doi = {10.26522/ssj.v10i1.1324},
	abstract = {The dominance of medicalized “psy” discourses in the West has marginalized alternative perspectives and analyses of madness, resulting in the underinclusion (or exclusion) from mainstream discourse of the firsthand experiences and perspectives of those who identify as Mad. We argue that this marginalization of firsthand knowledge(s) demands closer critical scrutiny, particularly through the use of critical reflexivity. This paper draws on Fricker’s concept of epistemic injustice, whereby a person is wronged in his or her capacity as a knower, as a useful framework for interrogating the subjugation of Mad knowledge(s). Also examined is the problem of sanism, a deeply embedded system of discrimination and oppression, as an underlying component of epistemic injustice. Sanism assumes a pathological view of madness, which can be attributed to what Rimke has termed psychocentrism: the notion that pathologies are rooted in the mind and/or body of the individual, rather than the product of social structures, relations, and problems. The paper examines how sanism marginalizes the knowledge(s) of Mad persons and contributes to epistemic injustice, and considers possibilities for advancing social justice using Mad epistemological perspectives.},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Studies in Social Justice},
	author = {LeBlanc, Stephanie and Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne},
	month = aug,
	year = {2016},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000044},
	pages = {59--78},
}

The dominance of medicalized “psy” discourses in the West has marginalized alternative perspectives and analyses of madness, resulting in the underinclusion (or exclusion) from mainstream discourse of the firsthand experiences and perspectives of those who identify as Mad. We argue that this marginalization of firsthand knowledge(s) demands closer critical scrutiny, particularly through the use of critical reflexivity. This paper draws on Fricker’s concept of epistemic injustice, whereby a person is wronged in his or her capacity as a knower, as a useful framework for interrogating the subjugation of Mad knowledge(s). Also examined is the problem of sanism, a deeply embedded system of discrimination and oppression, as an underlying component of epistemic injustice. Sanism assumes a pathological view of madness, which can be attributed to what Rimke has termed psychocentrism: the notion that pathologies are rooted in the mind and/or body of the individual, rather than the product of social structures, relations, and problems. The paper examines how sanism marginalizes the knowledge(s) of Mad persons and contributes to epistemic injustice, and considers possibilities for advancing social justice using Mad epistemological perspectives.
Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement. Birrell, P. J.; and Bruns, C. M. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4): 391–397. October 2016. ZSCC: 0000005
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{birrell_ethics_2016,
	title = {Ethics and {Relationship}: {From} {Risk} {Management} to {Relational} {Engagement}},
	volume = {94},
	issn = {07489633},
	shorttitle = {Ethics and {Relationship}},
	url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcad.12097},
	doi = {10.1002/jcad.12097},
	language = {en},
	number = {4},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Journal of Counseling \& Development},
	author = {Birrell, Pamela J. and Bruns, Cindy M.},
	month = oct,
	year = {2016},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000005},
	pages = {391--397},
}

Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement. Birrell, P. J.; and Bruns, C. M. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4): 391–397. October 2016. ZSCC: 0000005
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{birrell_ethics_2016-1,
	title = {Ethics and {Relationship}: {From} {Risk} {Management} to {Relational} {Engagement}},
	volume = {94},
	issn = {07489633},
	shorttitle = {Ethics and {Relationship}},
	url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcad.12097},
	doi = {10.1002/jcad.12097},
	language = {en},
	number = {4},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Journal of Counseling \& Development},
	author = {Birrell, Pamela J. and Bruns, Cindy M.},
	month = oct,
	year = {2016},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000005},
	pages = {391--397},
}

The Ethics of Ambiguity: Rethinking the Role and Importance of Uncertainty in Medical Education and Practice. Domen, R. E. Academic Pathology, 3: 237428951665471. August 2016.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{domen_ethics_2016,
	title = {The {Ethics} of {Ambiguity}: {Rethinking} the {Role} and {Importance} of {Uncertainty} in {Medical} {Education} and {Practice}},
	volume = {3},
	issn = {2374-2895, 2374-2895},
	shorttitle = {The {Ethics} of {Ambiguity}},
	url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2374289516654712},
	doi = {10.1177/2374289516654712},
	abstract = {Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decisionmaking in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {Academic Pathology},
	author = {Domen, Ronald E.},
	month = aug,
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {ambiguity, ethics, medical education, patient-centered care,, professionalism, respect, uncertainty},
	pages = {237428951665471},
}

Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decisionmaking in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.
Understanding and Promoting Thinking About Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition. Sandoval, W. A.; Greene, J. A.; and Bråten, I. Review of Research in Education, 40(1): 457–496. March 2016.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{sandoval_understanding_2016,
	title = {Understanding and {Promoting} {Thinking} {About} {Knowledge}: {Origins}, {Issues}, and {Future} {Directions} of {Research} on {Epistemic} {Cognition}},
	volume = {40},
	issn = {0091-732X, 1935-1038},
	shorttitle = {Understanding and {Promoting} {Thinking} {About} {Knowledge}},
	url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0091732X16669319},
	doi = {10.3102/0091732X16669319},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {Review of Research in Education},
	author = {Sandoval, William A. and Greene, Jeffrey A. and Bråten, Ivar},
	month = mar,
	year = {2016},
	pages = {457--496},
}

  2015 (1)
Epistemological Issues in Diagnosis and Assessment. Probst, B. In Probst, B., editor(s), Critical Thinking in Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis, pages 15–44. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@incollection{probst_epistemological_2015,
	address = {Cham},
	title = {Epistemological {Issues} in {Diagnosis} and {Assessment}},
	isbn = {978-3-319-17773-1 978-3-319-17774-8},
	url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-17774-8_2},
	abstract = {This book begins with a thoughtful exploration of two fundamental questions that underlie all clinical decisions. First, what exactly is a “mental disorder,” as opposed to other kinds of suffering or maladaptive behavior that we would call non-mental disorders? What makes a disorder specifically mental? And second, on what do we base these definitions and distinctions? What do we consider reliable (and unreliable) sources of knowledge, and what are some of the pitfalls in our assumptions about what we “know” and how we’ve come to “know” it? Common cognitive errors are explored, along with their consequences. These include circular reasoning, the difficulty of determining threshold or cut-off point, assumptions about causality, and the problems inherent in mental heuristics such as anchoring and availability. The chapter then explores the role of labels and labeling theory, the aims and limitations of classification systems such as the DSM, and the challenge of trying to develop a way to think about mental disorder that is useful for both general purposes (to make predictions based on shared characteristics) and specific aims (to understand and help particular individuals).},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	booktitle = {Critical {Thinking} in {Clinical} {Assessment} and {Diagnosis}},
	publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
	author = {Probst, Barbara},
	editor = {Probst, Barbara},
	year = {2015},
	doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-17774-8_2},
	pages = {15--44},
}

This book begins with a thoughtful exploration of two fundamental questions that underlie all clinical decisions. First, what exactly is a “mental disorder,” as opposed to other kinds of suffering or maladaptive behavior that we would call non-mental disorders? What makes a disorder specifically mental? And second, on what do we base these definitions and distinctions? What do we consider reliable (and unreliable) sources of knowledge, and what are some of the pitfalls in our assumptions about what we “know” and how we’ve come to “know” it? Common cognitive errors are explored, along with their consequences. These include circular reasoning, the difficulty of determining threshold or cut-off point, assumptions about causality, and the problems inherent in mental heuristics such as anchoring and availability. The chapter then explores the role of labels and labeling theory, the aims and limitations of classification systems such as the DSM, and the challenge of trying to develop a way to think about mental disorder that is useful for both general purposes (to make predictions based on shared characteristics) and specific aims (to understand and help particular individuals).
  2013 (5)
Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Problems in Communicating Uncertainty in Clinical Evidence. Han, P. K. J. Medical care research and review : MCRR, 70(1 0): 14S–36S. February 2013. ZSCC: 0000114
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{han_conceptual_2013,
	title = {Conceptual, {Methodological}, and {Ethical} {Problems} in {Communicating} {Uncertainty} in {Clinical} {Evidence}},
	volume = {70},
	issn = {1077-5587},
	url = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238424/},
	doi = {10.1177/1077558712459361},
	abstract = {The communication of uncertainty in clinical evidence is an important endeavor that poses difficult conceptual, methodological, and ethical problems. Conceptual problems include logical paradoxes in the meaning of probability and “ambiguity”— second-order uncertainty arising from the lack of reliability, credibility, or adequacy of probability information. Methodological problems include questions about optimal methods for representing fundamental uncertainties and for communicating these uncertainties in clinical practice. Ethical problems include questions about whether communicating uncertainty enhances or diminishes patient autonomy and produces net benefits or harms. This article reviews the limited but growing literature on these problems and efforts to address them and identifies key areas of focus for future research. It is argued that the critical need moving forward is for greater conceptual clarity and consistent representational methods that make the meaning of various uncertainties understandable, and for clinical interventions to support patients in coping with uncertainty in decision making.},
	number = {1 0},
	urldate = {2020-07-01},
	journal = {Medical care research and review : MCRR},
	author = {Han, Paul K. J.},
	month = feb,
	year = {2013},
	pmid = {23132891},
	pmcid = {PMC4238424},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000114 },
	pages = {14S--36S},
}

The communication of uncertainty in clinical evidence is an important endeavor that poses difficult conceptual, methodological, and ethical problems. Conceptual problems include logical paradoxes in the meaning of probability and “ambiguity”— second-order uncertainty arising from the lack of reliability, credibility, or adequacy of probability information. Methodological problems include questions about optimal methods for representing fundamental uncertainties and for communicating these uncertainties in clinical practice. Ethical problems include questions about whether communicating uncertainty enhances or diminishes patient autonomy and produces net benefits or harms. This article reviews the limited but growing literature on these problems and efforts to address them and identifies key areas of focus for future research. It is argued that the critical need moving forward is for greater conceptual clarity and consistent representational methods that make the meaning of various uncertainties understandable, and for clinical interventions to support patients in coping with uncertainty in decision making.
Change is an Ongoing Ethical Event: Levinas, Bakhtin and the Dialogical Dynamics of Becoming. Bøe, T. D.; Kristoffersen, K.; Lidbom, P. A.; Lindvig, G. R.; Seikkula, J.; Ulland, D.; and Zachariassen, K. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 34(1): 18–31. March 2013. ZSCC: 0000028
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{boe_change_2013,
	title = {Change is an {Ongoing} {Ethical} {Event}: {Levinas}, {Bakhtin} and the {Dialogical} {Dynamics} of {Becoming}},
	volume = {34},
	issn = {0814723X},
	shorttitle = {Change is an {Ongoing} {Ethical} {Event}},
	url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/anzf.1003},
	doi = {10.1002/anzf.1003},
	abstract = {In this article, we use the intersubjective ethics of Bakhtin and Levinas and a case illustration to explore change in therapy as an ethical phenomenon. We follow Lakoff and Johnson in their emphasis on the way our conceptions of change seem permeated by metaphors. Bakhtin and Levinas both suggest through a language in which metaphors play a crucial role, that human existence—the consciousness and the subject—emerge within the dialogue of the encounter. They both describe the dynamics of human existence as ethical in their origin. Following this, we argue that change may be seen as an ongoing ethical event and that the dynamics of change are found in the ways we constantly become in this event. We investigate the ethical dynamics of this ongoing event through three themes illuminating the contributions of both Bakhtin and Levinas: (1) we become as responsible, (2) we become in speaking, (3) we become in answering the unknown. We explore these themes through a case illustration. Finally, we briefly point out some possible implications for mental health practice.},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy},
	author = {Bøe, Tore Dag and Kristoffersen, Kjell and Lidbom, Per Arne and Lindvig, Gunnhild Ruud and Seikkula, Jaakko and Ulland, Dagfinn and Zachariassen, Karianne},
	month = mar,
	year = {2013},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000028},
	pages = {18--31},
}

In this article, we use the intersubjective ethics of Bakhtin and Levinas and a case illustration to explore change in therapy as an ethical phenomenon. We follow Lakoff and Johnson in their emphasis on the way our conceptions of change seem permeated by metaphors. Bakhtin and Levinas both suggest through a language in which metaphors play a crucial role, that human existence—the consciousness and the subject—emerge within the dialogue of the encounter. They both describe the dynamics of human existence as ethical in their origin. Following this, we argue that change may be seen as an ongoing ethical event and that the dynamics of change are found in the ways we constantly become in this event. We investigate the ethical dynamics of this ongoing event through three themes illuminating the contributions of both Bakhtin and Levinas: (1) we become as responsible, (2) we become in speaking, (3) we become in answering the unknown. We explore these themes through a case illustration. Finally, we briefly point out some possible implications for mental health practice.
Public secrets in public health: Knowing not to know while making scientific knowledge. Geissler, P. W. American Ethnologist, 40(1): 13–34. 2013. _eprint: https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/amet.12002
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{geissler_public_2013,
	title = {Public secrets in public health: {Knowing} not to know while making scientific knowledge},
	volume = {40},
	copyright = {© 2013 The Authors. American Ethnologist published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Anthropological Association. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.},
	issn = {1548-1425},
	shorttitle = {Public secrets in public health},
	url = {https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/amet.12002},
	doi = {10.1111/amet.12002},
	abstract = {Unknown knowns—or “public secrets”—may play an integral part in publicly funded medical science. In one large transnational field research site in Africa, such unknowing pertains to vital material inequalities across the relations of scientific production. These inequalities are open to experience but remain often unacknowledged in public speech and scientific texts. This silence is not usually achieved by suppressing knowledge but through linguistic convention and differentiation between places and moments of knowing and ignorance. Switching between known and unknown according to situation and interlocutor is an important, largely implicit skill that maintains relations necessary to conduct clinical research—linking bodies, lives, institutions, and technologies across differentials of resources, expertise, and power. Unknowing, then, facilitates research; and it shapes the resulting work and perpetuates the political and economic contradictions that pervade the context and the research endeavor itself. Unknowing thus poses a challenge for conventional anthropological modes of critique and engagement.},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-03-19},
	journal = {American Ethnologist},
	author = {Geissler, P. W.},
	year = {2013},
	note = {\_eprint: https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/amet.12002},
	keywords = {Africa, ethics, ignorance, justice, medical research, science},
	pages = {13--34},
}

Unknown knowns—or “public secrets”—may play an integral part in publicly funded medical science. In one large transnational field research site in Africa, such unknowing pertains to vital material inequalities across the relations of scientific production. These inequalities are open to experience but remain often unacknowledged in public speech and scientific texts. This silence is not usually achieved by suppressing knowledge but through linguistic convention and differentiation between places and moments of knowing and ignorance. Switching between known and unknown according to situation and interlocutor is an important, largely implicit skill that maintains relations necessary to conduct clinical research—linking bodies, lives, institutions, and technologies across differentials of resources, expertise, and power. Unknowing, then, facilitates research; and it shapes the resulting work and perpetuates the political and economic contradictions that pervade the context and the research endeavor itself. Unknowing thus poses a challenge for conventional anthropological modes of critique and engagement.
The Politics of Unknowing and the Virtues of Ignorance: Toward a Pedagogy of Epistemic Vulnerability. Logue, J. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION,10. 2013.
link   bibtex  
@article{logue_politics_2013,
	title = {The {Politics} of {Unknowing} and the {Virtues} of {Ignorance}: {Toward} a {Pedagogy} of {Epistemic} {Vulnerability}},
	language = {en},
	journal = {PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION},
	author = {Logue, Jennifer},
	year = {2013},
	pages = {10},
}

Conceptual Integration and Measurement of Epistemological and Ontological Beliefs in Educational Research. Schraw, G. ISRN Education, 2013: 1–19. 2013.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{schraw_conceptual_2013,
	title = {Conceptual {Integration} and {Measurement} of {Epistemological} and {Ontological} {Beliefs} in {Educational} {Research}},
	volume = {2013},
	issn = {2090-8652},
	url = {https://www.hindawi.com/archive/2013/327680/},
	doi = {10.1155/2013/327680},
	abstract = {This paper examines the conceptualization and measurement of epistemological and ontological phenomena and makes recommendations for improving the conceptual framework and methodological assessment of these phenomena. I discuss the ways educational researchers have studied beliefs and how this research can be improved through a comprehensive conceptual framework and better measurement. This paper provides definitions of epistemological and ontological beliefs and world views, discusses six complementary strategies for assessing these beliefs, compares the strengths of these strategies, and provides examples of how they have been used in the research literature. This paper discusses challenges related to the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework for beliefs, as well as ways to improve measurement of these beliefs and summarizes six emergent themes.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {ISRN Education},
	author = {Schraw, Gregory},
	year = {2013},
	pages = {1--19},
}
This paper examines the conceptualization and measurement of epistemological and ontological phenomena and makes recommendations for improving the conceptual framework and methodological assessment of these phenomena. I discuss the ways educational researchers have studied beliefs and how this research can be improved through a comprehensive conceptual framework and better measurement. This paper provides definitions of epistemological and ontological beliefs and world views, discusses six complementary strategies for assessing these beliefs, compares the strengths of these strategies, and provides examples of how they have been used in the research literature. This paper discusses challenges related to the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework for beliefs, as well as ways to improve measurement of these beliefs and summarizes six emergent themes.
  2011 (3)
Varieties of Uncertainty in Health Care: A Conceptual Taxonomy. Han, P. K. J.; Klein, W. M. P.; and Arora, N. K. Medical Decision Making, 31(6): 828–838. November 2011. ZSCC: 0000425 Publisher: SAGE Publications Inc STM
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{han_varieties_2011,
	title = {Varieties of {Uncertainty} in {Health} {Care}: {A} {Conceptual} {Taxonomy}},
	volume = {31},
	issn = {0272-989X},
	shorttitle = {Varieties of {Uncertainty} in {Health} {Care}},
	url = {https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X10393976},
	doi = {10.1177/0272989X10393976},
	abstract = {Uncertainty is a pervasive and important problem that has attracted increasing attention in health care, given the growing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, shared decision making, and patient-centered care. However, our understanding of this problem is limited, in part because of the absence of a unified, coherent concept of uncertainty. There are multiple meanings and varieties of uncertainty in health care that are not often distinguished or acknowledged although each may have unique effects or warrant different courses of action. The literature on uncertainty in health care is thus fragmented, and existing insights have been incompletely translated to clinical practice. This article addresses this problem by synthesizing diverse theoretical and empirical literature from the fields of communication, decision science, engineering, health services research, and psychology and developing a new integrative conceptual taxonomy of uncertainty. A 3-dimensional taxonomy is proposed that characterizes uncertainty in health care according to its fundamental sources, issues, and locus. It is shown how this new taxonomy facilitates an organized approach to the problem of uncertainty in health care by clarifying its nature and prognosis and suggesting appropriate strategies for its analysis and management.},
	language = {en},
	number = {6},
	urldate = {2020-10-14},
	journal = {Medical Decision Making},
	author = {Han, Paul K. J. and Klein, William M. P. and Arora, Neeraj K.},
	month = nov,
	year = {2011},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000425 
Publisher: SAGE Publications Inc STM},
	pages = {828--838},
}

Uncertainty is a pervasive and important problem that has attracted increasing attention in health care, given the growing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, shared decision making, and patient-centered care. However, our understanding of this problem is limited, in part because of the absence of a unified, coherent concept of uncertainty. There are multiple meanings and varieties of uncertainty in health care that are not often distinguished or acknowledged although each may have unique effects or warrant different courses of action. The literature on uncertainty in health care is thus fragmented, and existing insights have been incompletely translated to clinical practice. This article addresses this problem by synthesizing diverse theoretical and empirical literature from the fields of communication, decision science, engineering, health services research, and psychology and developing a new integrative conceptual taxonomy of uncertainty. A 3-dimensional taxonomy is proposed that characterizes uncertainty in health care according to its fundamental sources, issues, and locus. It is shown how this new taxonomy facilitates an organized approach to the problem of uncertainty in health care by clarifying its nature and prognosis and suggesting appropriate strategies for its analysis and management.
Toward Post-metaphysical Enactments: On Epistemic Drives, Negative Capability, and Indeterminacy Analysis. Murray, T. , 7(2): 34. 2011. ZSCC: 0000010
link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{murray_toward_2011,
	title = {Toward {Post}-metaphysical {Enactments}: {On} {Epistemic} {Drives}, {Negative} {Capability}, and {Indeterminacy} {Analysis}},
	volume = {7},
	abstract = {Various approaches and interpretations of post-metaphysics are described, followed by an exploration of methods and approaches to enacting a post-metaphysical attitude toward beliefs, and in particular beliefs commonly held within the community of integral theory and practice. Integral Post-metaphysics is described in context with the larger trend of post-metaphysical thought. Along the way several concepts and themes are introduced, including the epistemic turn in reasoning, misplaced concreteness, epistemic drives, and negative capability.},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	author = {Murray, Tom},
	year = {2011},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000010},
	pages = {34},
}

Various approaches and interpretations of post-metaphysics are described, followed by an exploration of methods and approaches to enacting a post-metaphysical attitude toward beliefs, and in particular beliefs commonly held within the community of integral theory and practice. Integral Post-metaphysics is described in context with the larger trend of post-metaphysical thought. Along the way several concepts and themes are introduced, including the epistemic turn in reasoning, misplaced concreteness, epistemic drives, and negative capability.
Identifying the Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research Collaboration. AMA Journal of Ethics, 13(2): 105–108. February 2011.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{noauthor_identifying_2011,
	title = {Identifying the {Challenges} in {Community}-{Based} {Participatory} {Research} {Collaboration}},
	volume = {13},
	issn = {2376-6980},
	url = {https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/identifying-challenges-community-based-participatory-research-collaboration/2011-02},
	doi = {10.1001/virtualmentor.2011.13.2.jdsc2-1102},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2020-05-19},
	journal = {AMA Journal of Ethics},
	month = feb,
	year = {2011},
	pages = {105--108},
}

  2010 (1)
The Core Beliefs Inventory: a brief measure of disruption in the assumptive world. Cann, A.; Calhoun, L. G.; Tedeschi, R. G.; Kilmer, R. P.; Gil-Rivas, V.; Vishnevsky, T.; and Danhauer, S. C. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 23(1): 19–34. January 2010.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{cann_core_2010,
	title = {The {Core} {Beliefs} {Inventory}: a brief measure of disruption in the assumptive world},
	volume = {23},
	issn = {1061-5806, 1477-2205},
	shorttitle = {The {Core} {Beliefs} {Inventory}},
	url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10615800802573013},
	doi = {10.1080/10615800802573013},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {Anxiety, Stress \& Coping},
	author = {Cann, Arnie and Calhoun, Lawrence G. and Tedeschi, Richard G. and Kilmer, Ryan P. and Gil-Rivas, Virginia and Vishnevsky, Tanya and Danhauer, Suzanne C.},
	month = jan,
	year = {2010},
	pages = {19--34},
}

  2005 (1)
From Therapeutic Power to Resistance?: Therapy and Cultural Hegemony. Guilfoyle, M. Theory & Psychology, 15(1): 101–124. February 2005. ZSCC: 0000075
Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
@article{guilfoyle_therapeutic_2005,
	title = {From {Therapeutic} {Power} to {Resistance}?: {Therapy} and {Cultural} {Hegemony}},
	volume = {15},
	issn = {0959-3543, 1461-7447},
	shorttitle = {From {Therapeutic} {Power} to {Resistance}?},
	url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0959354305049748},
	doi = {10.1177/0959354305049748},
	abstract = {Four ideas are used to conceptually link local therapeutic practices with macro sociocultural arrangements, and to question the feasibility of therapeutically derived resistances against them: power as a productive force; the power–knowledge integration; the power–resistance relationship; and power in context. Narrative therapy is presented as an example of a ‘therapy of resistance’, which at a micro level challenges the therapist–client power relation and privileges clients’ local knowledges, and hence, at a macro level, promotes resistance against dominant discourses and practices. However, at least two fundamental problems face therapies advocating resistance. At a macro level, they are vulnerable to neutralization when they engage in broader power relations. And at a micro level, they cannot escape the institutionalized therapist–client power imbalance, which renders ethically problematic the use of the therapeutic encounter to promote resistance. Strategies for addressing these problems are discussed.},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-06-24},
	journal = {Theory \& Psychology},
	author = {Guilfoyle, Michael},
	month = feb,
	year = {2005},
	note = {ZSCC: 0000075},
	pages = {101--124},
}

Four ideas are used to conceptually link local therapeutic practices with macro sociocultural arrangements, and to question the feasibility of therapeutically derived resistances against them: power as a productive force; the power–knowledge integration; the power–resistance relationship; and power in context. Narrative therapy is presented as an example of a ‘therapy of resistance’, which at a micro level challenges the therapist–client power relation and privileges clients’ local knowledges, and hence, at a macro level, promotes resistance against dominant discourses and practices. However, at least two fundamental problems face therapies advocating resistance. At a macro level, they are vulnerable to neutralization when they engage in broader power relations. And at a micro level, they cannot escape the institutionalized therapist–client power imbalance, which renders ethically problematic the use of the therapeutic encounter to promote resistance. Strategies for addressing these problems are discussed.
  2004 (1)
Evolution of a Constructivist Conceptualization of Epistemological Reflection. Baxter Magolda, M. B. Educational Psychologist, 39(1): 31–42. March 2004.
Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
@article{baxter_magolda_evolution_2004,
	title = {Evolution of a {Constructivist} {Conceptualization} of {Epistemological} {Reflection}},
	volume = {39},
	issn = {0046-1520, 1532-6985},
	url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15326985ep3901_4},
	doi = {10.1207/s15326985ep3901_4},
	language = {en},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-03-12},
	journal = {Educational Psychologist},
	author = {Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.},
	month = mar,
	year = {2004},
	pages = {31--42},
}

  2001 (1)
The Bonds of Freedom: Simone de Beauvoir's Existentialist Ethics. Arp, K. Open Court Publishing, 2001.
link   bibtex   abstract  
@book{arp_bonds_2001,
	title = {The {Bonds} of {Freedom}: {Simone} de {Beauvoir}'s {Existentialist} {Ethics}},
	isbn = {978-0-8126-9442-0},
	shorttitle = {The {Bonds} of {Freedom}},
	abstract = {"The Bonds of Freedom is the first full-scale analysis of Beauvoir's existentialist ethics, as laid out in her important work, The Ethics of Ambiguity, written in 1946. Kristana Arp traces the central themes of Beauvoir's ethics back to her earlier philosophical essays and to literary works such as The Blood of Others and All Men Are Mortal. Drawing from the thought of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty, Beauvoir developed her own distinctive version of existentialism throughout these works."--BOOK JACKET.},
	language = {en},
	publisher = {Open Court Publishing},
	author = {Arp, Kristana},
	year = {2001},
	keywords = {Philosophy / Movements / Existentialism},
}

"The Bonds of Freedom is the first full-scale analysis of Beauvoir's existentialist ethics, as laid out in her important work, The Ethics of Ambiguity, written in 1946. Kristana Arp traces the central themes of Beauvoir's ethics back to her earlier philosophical essays and to literary works such as The Blood of Others and All Men Are Mortal. Drawing from the thought of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty, Beauvoir developed her own distinctive version of existentialism throughout these works."–BOOK JACKET.
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Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Schommer, M. Journal of educational psychology, 82(3): 498. 1990. Publisher: American Psychological Association
link   bibtex  
@article{schommer_effects_1990,
	title = {Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension.},
	volume = {82},
	number = {3},
	journal = {Journal of educational psychology},
	author = {Schommer, Marlene},
	year = {1990},
	note = {Publisher: American Psychological Association},
	pages = {498},
}

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Barry Smith: Introduction to Biomedical Ontology - Streaming Video.
Paper   link   bibtex  
@misc{noauthor_barry_nodate,
	title = {Barry {Smith}: {Introduction} to {Biomedical} {Ontology} - {Streaming} {Video}},
	url = {http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/IntroOntology_Course.html},
	urldate = {2021-12-27},
}

Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking. .
Paper   link   bibtex  
@book{noauthor_thinking_nodate,
	title = {Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking},
	url = {https://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/thinking/},
	urldate = {2021-04-13},
}

Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking.
Paper   link   bibtex  
@misc{noauthor_thinking_nodate-1,
	title = {Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking},
	url = {https://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/thinking/},
	urldate = {2021-04-13},
}

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