Epistemic thinking refers to a cognitive and metacognitive process by which we reason about ‘knowledge’ and probabilistic reasoning. Here, we aim to discuss the nature of ‘knowledge’ insofar as it connects with our ethics (in other words, how our precepts of the character of “knowledge” affect how we interact in the world).

  • What constitutes knowledge?
    • In what ways do we conceptualize ‘information’?
    • How is it generated and transferred?
  • Do specific social agents (individuals) inherently possess more epistemic value?
    • Why? Why not?
  • What attributes of our epistemic reasoning (in other words, what ways of thinking about knowledge, arguments, evidence, and truth) are conducive to identifying theories or ideas of relevance?
  • What are the limitations of ‘knowledge’ and thinking about how we think about ‘knowledge’?
  • What ethical implications do epistemics and meta-epistemics have in connection to practices where providers possess more power than consumers? (Healthcare, STEM, and education)?
  • What ethical issues are implicit in social systems, where some individuals agents have more decision-making power than those whom they serve?

Let’s look at a specific example: take the field of ‘mental wellness & illness’.

Translational Issues in Psychiatry As A Case Study

How issues in theory mediate issues in practice : How epistemological issues mediate ethical issues

DSM categories lack theoretical-conceptual reliability and predictive validity. The widespread unawareness of the limitations of our most popular ontological model of mental illness, is problematic because if we cannot reliably and precisely characterize such problematic states of being, how are we to effectively treat them?

Additionally, how can [mis]perceptions about the character of “mental disorder” unfairly influence our perception of the legitimacy of the ideas/propositions that those afflicted may generate?

So, what kind of ethical implications does this have for patient-provider interactions? At a time when diagnoses still lack sufficient prognostic utility, what are our ethics around evaluation, treatment, and communication with clients? Do we have some questions that we need to address with respect to how we conceptualize and implement diagnostic practices?

Do you think the evaluation and treatment process (at large) is more likely to be driven by the institutional desire to manage risk rather than to relationally engage ? Is it ethical to make such diagnostic determinations in light of such conceptual & computational gaps?

If a diagnosis must be made for practical reasons (insurance, for instance), then how should a ‘diagnosis’ be communicated?  To be clear, we are not saying that professionals who engage in the act of diagnosis are behaving unethically: not only is the intent of diagnosis to shed light on the pathophysiology of disorder in order to identify and implement ways to lessen the harmful dysfunction (though, we could certainly debate the extent to which this process does or does not function in this way), many clients seek closure and comfort in diagnoses. The needs of providers and client stakeholders are critically important; however, what if an excessive psychological need for closure, actually undermines the capacity for critical thinking & balanced analysis? What if a pervasive psychological intolerance of uncertainty undermines individual and collective capacities for sense-making? The problem that presents when diagnostic claims are made in the absence of enough information to support them and when they are framed using inaccurate abstractions, is a conceptual pain point that could be tipping a downstream cascade of mis and disinformation.

Barring clear structural damage (you know, shattered bones, dead tissue, etc), most health phenomena are rarely so simple and unidimensional . Appraising ‘diagnosis’ as ‘predictive prognosis’ might be a comforting crutch, but should it be normative to prioritize psychological safety over epistemic validity? Perhaps the point at which scientific and medical information is communicated, is where we need to consider an ethic of ambiguity upon which to deploy the use of appropriate language that would allow us to receive, integrate, and express messages about the strengths & limitations of our knowledge. Maybe it is in the light such an honest ‘unknowing’, that we could learn to find meaning, value, and maybe even some creative solutions, to our continuous problems.

References

Han, Paul K. J. 2013. “Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Problems in Communicating Uncertainty in Clinical Evidence.” Medical Care Research and Review : MCRR 70 (1 0): 14S-36S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558712459361.

Zotero Library: Epistemic Thinking & Ethics

BibBase https://api.zotero.org/users/6447874/collections/5ELTGQPE/items?key=YvFDI7aVva0YJAkhHsJgGe1E&format=bibtex&limit=100
generated by bibbase.org
  2021 (3)
The Analysis of Knowledge. Barnett, B. C. . August 2021. Book Title: Introduction to Philosophy: Epistemology Publisher: The Rebus Community
The Analysis of Knowledge [link]Paper   link   bibtex  
Development of Creative Thinking Skills in the Teaching-Learning Process. Larraz-Rábanos, N. IntechOpen, May 2021. Publication Title: Teacher Education - New Perspectives
Development of Creative Thinking Skills in the Teaching-Learning Process [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Antifragility. March 2021. Page Version ID: 1013667270
Antifragility [link]Paper   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2020 (3)
How to Regulate the Right to Self-Medicate. Roberts, J. T. F. HEC Forum. June 2020. ZSCC: 0000000
How to Regulate the Right to Self-Medicate [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Free to Choose: A Moral Defense of the Right-to-Try Movement. Brodrick, M. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine, 45(1): 61–85. January 2020. ZSCC: 0000001 Publisher: Oxford Academic
Free to Choose: A Moral Defense of the Right-to-Try Movement [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Conceptual Competence in Psychiatry: Recommendations for Education and Training. Aftab, A.; and Waterman, G. S. Academic Psychiatry. January 2020.
Conceptual Competence in Psychiatry: Recommendations for Education and Training [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
  2019 (3)
Tolerating uncertainty about conceptual models of uncertainty in health care. Han, P. K. J.; and Djulbegovic, B. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 25(2): 183–185. 2019. ZSCC: 0000004 _eprint: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jep.13110
Tolerating uncertainty about conceptual models of uncertainty in health care [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
Visual Entropy and the Visualization of Uncertainty. Holliman, N. S.; Coltekin, A.; Fernstad, S. J.; Simpson, M. D.; Wilson, K. J.; and Woods, A. J. arXiv:1907.12879 [cs, math]. July 2019. ZSCC: 0000002 arXiv: 1907.12879
Visual Entropy and the Visualization of Uncertainty [link]Paper   link   bibtex   abstract  
Beyond Medical Paternalism: Undoing the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Simone de Beauvoir's A Very Easy Death. Elsner, A. M. Literature and Medicine, 37(2): 420–441. December 2019. ZSCC: 0000000 Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Beyond Medical Paternalism: Undoing the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Simone de Beauvoir's A Very Easy Death [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2018 (1)
Qualitative interviewing and epistemics. Roulston, K. Qualitative Research, 18(3): 322–341. June 2018.
Qualitative interviewing and epistemics [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2017 (2)
Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales. Pekrun, R.; Vogl, E.; Muis, K. R.; and Sinatra, G. M. Cognition and Emotion, 31(6): 1268–1276. August 2017. ZSCC: 0000077
Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Three-factor structure for Epistemic Belief Inventory: A cross-validation study. Leal-Soto, F.; and Ferrer-Urbina, R. PLOS ONE, 12(3): e0173295. March 2017.
Three-factor structure for Epistemic Belief Inventory: A cross-validation study [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2016 (6)
Is intellectual character growth a realistic educational aim?. Baehr, J. Journal of Moral Education, 45(2): 117–131. April 2016.
Is intellectual character growth a realistic educational aim? [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
Toward Epistemic Justice: A Critically Reflexive Examination of ‘Sanism’ and Implications for Knowledge Generation. LeBlanc, S.; and Kinsella, E. A. Studies in Social Justice, 10(1): 59–78. August 2016. ZSCC: 0000044
Toward Epistemic Justice: A Critically Reflexive Examination of ‘Sanism’ and Implications for Knowledge Generation [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement. Birrell, P. J.; and Bruns, C. M. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4): 391–397. October 2016. ZSCC: 0000005
Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement. Birrell, P. J.; and Bruns, C. M. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4): 391–397. October 2016. ZSCC: 0000005
Ethics and Relationship: From Risk Management to Relational Engagement [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
The Ethics of Ambiguity: Rethinking the Role and Importance of Uncertainty in Medical Education and Practice. Domen, R. E. Academic Pathology, 3: 237428951665471. August 2016.
The Ethics of Ambiguity: Rethinking the Role and Importance of Uncertainty in Medical Education and Practice [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Understanding and Promoting Thinking About Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition. Sandoval, W. A.; Greene, J. A.; and Bråten, I. Review of Research in Education, 40(1): 457–496. March 2016.
Understanding and Promoting Thinking About Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
  2015 (1)
Epistemological Issues in Diagnosis and Assessment. Probst, B. In Probst, B., editor(s), Critical Thinking in Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis, pages 15–44. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
Epistemological Issues in Diagnosis and Assessment [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2013 (5)
Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Problems in Communicating Uncertainty in Clinical Evidence. Han, P. K. J. Medical care research and review : MCRR, 70(1 0): 14S–36S. February 2013. ZSCC: 0000114
Conceptual, Methodological, and Ethical Problems in Communicating Uncertainty in Clinical Evidence [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Change is an Ongoing Ethical Event: Levinas, Bakhtin and the Dialogical Dynamics of Becoming. Bøe, T. D.; Kristoffersen, K.; Lidbom, P. A.; Lindvig, G. R.; Seikkula, J.; Ulland, D.; and Zachariassen, K. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 34(1): 18–31. March 2013. ZSCC: 0000028
Change is an Ongoing Ethical Event: Levinas, Bakhtin and the Dialogical Dynamics of Becoming [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Public secrets in public health: Knowing not to know while making scientific knowledge. Geissler, P. W. American Ethnologist, 40(1): 13–34. 2013. _eprint: https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/amet.12002
Public secrets in public health: Knowing not to know while making scientific knowledge [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
The Politics of Unknowing and the Virtues of Ignorance: Toward a Pedagogy of Epistemic Vulnerability. Logue, J. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION,10. 2013.
link   bibtex  
Conceptual Integration and Measurement of Epistemological and Ontological Beliefs in Educational Research. Schraw, G. ISRN Education, 2013: 1–19. 2013.
Conceptual Integration and Measurement of Epistemological and Ontological Beliefs in Educational Research [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2011 (3)
Varieties of Uncertainty in Health Care: A Conceptual Taxonomy. Han, P. K. J.; Klein, W. M. P.; and Arora, N. K. Medical Decision Making, 31(6): 828–838. November 2011. ZSCC: 0000425 Publisher: SAGE Publications Inc STM
Varieties of Uncertainty in Health Care: A Conceptual Taxonomy [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
Toward Post-metaphysical Enactments: On Epistemic Drives, Negative Capability, and Indeterminacy Analysis. Murray, T. , 7(2): 34. 2011. ZSCC: 0000010
link   bibtex   abstract  
Identifying the Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research Collaboration. AMA Journal of Ethics, 13(2): 105–108. February 2011.
Identifying the Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research Collaboration [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
  2010 (1)
The Core Beliefs Inventory: a brief measure of disruption in the assumptive world. Cann, A.; Calhoun, L. G.; Tedeschi, R. G.; Kilmer, R. P.; Gil-Rivas, V.; Vishnevsky, T.; and Danhauer, S. C. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 23(1): 19–34. January 2010.
The Core Beliefs Inventory: a brief measure of disruption in the assumptive world [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
  2005 (1)
From Therapeutic Power to Resistance?: Therapy and Cultural Hegemony. Guilfoyle, M. Theory & Psychology, 15(1): 101–124. February 2005. ZSCC: 0000075
From Therapeutic Power to Resistance?: Therapy and Cultural Hegemony [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex   abstract  
  2004 (1)
Evolution of a Constructivist Conceptualization of Epistemological Reflection. Baxter Magolda, M. B. Educational Psychologist, 39(1): 31–42. March 2004.
Evolution of a Constructivist Conceptualization of Epistemological Reflection [link]Paper   doi   link   bibtex  
  2001 (1)
The Bonds of Freedom: Simone de Beauvoir's Existentialist Ethics. Arp, K. Open Court Publishing, 2001.
link   bibtex   abstract  
  1990 (1)
Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Schommer, M. Journal of educational psychology, 82(3): 498. 1990. Publisher: American Psychological Association
link   bibtex  
  undefined (4)
CFAR Handbook 2019.pdf.
CFAR Handbook 2019.pdf [link]Paper   link   bibtex  
Barry Smith: Introduction to Biomedical Ontology - Streaming Video.
Barry Smith: Introduction to Biomedical Ontology - Streaming Video [link]Paper   link   bibtex  
Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking. .
Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking [link]Paper   link   bibtex  
Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking.
Thinking skills - analytical, critical and creative thinking [link]Paper   link   bibtex  

RSS Feed

Loading RSS Feed

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

butwhatdoweknow.com is licensed under Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

error: Content is protected !!